India has one of the biggest power generation limits on the planet (its present position is fifth) with a limit of 156,000 MW which is around 4 percent of the worldwide power generation. The four major nations, namely US, Japan, China and Russia together devour around 49 percent of the aggregate power created universally. The normal per capita utilisation of power in India was assessed to be 704kWh during the year 2008-09. The power division has developed a significant core interest territory for both the state and central legislature. It experiences control deficiencies evaluated at around 14 or 15 percent, with the figure higher in the northern and western districts.
India’s generation limit of 2,300 MW in 1950 extended to more than 116,500 MW including non- utilities toward the end of 2000-01. The aggregate introduced limit of electric power generation further expanded to 141,080 MW in 2007-08 which contrasted with a limit of 128,000 MW amid a similar period in 2006-07. The Eleventh Plan has focused on a limit expansion of 78,570 MW. The five years (2007-2012) might be the best of times for control hardware producers with the control segment on a development binge. Nearly 82 percent of the arranged generation limit with regards to the Tenth Plan was either executed or was being actualized. Five biggest control ventures, totalling 20,000 MW were brought up in 2008. In the transmission segment, Power Grid Corporation arranged a capex of Rs 710 billion in 2010.
Previously, the limitations in accomplishing the Plan focused of expansion to control generation and up- degree of transmission and appropriation had badly affected the electrical gear industry. The pinnacle deficiency which was more than 11 percent of the necessity in 2003-04 expanded to 11.7 percent out of 2004- 05 and to more than 12 percent out of 2005-06. The deficiency additionally rose to around 14 percent out of 2006-07. In the ten long stretches of 2007-08 the pinnacle deficiency had ascended to more than 15 percent of the pinnacle request of 107,010 MW.
As indicated by the Power Ministry, the power part has tied up Rs 2,240 billion worth of investments to construct control plants with 70,000 MW limits in the next three years. The Indian government has defined aspiring objectives in the eleventh arrangement for control area inferable from which the power division is balanced for noteworthy extension. The specific end goal to give accessibility of more than 1000 units of per capita power in the next few years, it has been evaluated that need-based limit expansion above 100,000 MW would be expected. This has brought about huge expansion plans being proposed in the sub-divisions of Generation Transmission and Distribution. Investment is likewise anticipated to stream into various fragments of the esteemed chain, covering the portions of energy generation, transmission and dispersion and united divisions, for example, gear, innovation and administrations. The private division is anticipated to assume a more dynamic part in speculation and capital efficiency. The administration has embraced various activities to encourage generation of private segment investment.
This segment, right now, is more dynamic than ever. Any private player can enter this field and make huge profits. Renewable energy in India comes under the purview of the Ministry of New and Renewable Energy. India was the first country in the world to set up a ministry of non-conventional energy resources, in early 1980s. India’s cumulative grid interactive or grid tied renewable energy capacity (excluding large hydro) has reached 33.8 GW, of which 66% comes from wind, while solar PV contributed nearly 4.59% along with biomass and small hydro power of the renewable energy installed capacity in India. Fossil fuel reserves are diminishing rapidly across the world, intensifying the stress on existing reserves day-by- day due to increased demand. Not only that, fossil fuels, presently contributing to 80% of world primary energy, are inflicting enormous impacts on environment.
Climatic changes driven by human activities, in particular the production of greenhouse gas emissions, directly impact the environment. Energy sector has a key role in this regard since energy during its production, distribution and consumption is responsible for producing environmentally harmful substances. A secure and accessible supply of energy is thus very crucial for the sustainability of modern societies. There is an urgent need for a quicker switch over of energy systems from conventional to renewable that are sustainable and can meet the present and projected world energy demand. Solar power is one of the most promising renewable. It is reliable and less vulnerable to changes in seasonal weather patterns. Hydrogen, in the capacity of energy vector, is expected to be the optimum solution for intermittency and storgeneration of energy produced by renewable. Thus, coupled with hydrogen as an energy carrier, solar energy has a large potential to become the fuel of the future. The present study is aimed to explore such potential for India in 2025. India is expected to have a high growth rate in energy demand over the coming years due to its huge population and rapid economic development.