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Rolling is the process of plastically deforming steel by passing it between rolls. Rolling is defined as the reduction of the cross sectional area of the steel piece being rolled, or the general shaping of the steel products, through the use of the rotating rolls. In rolling mills, intermediate steel products are given their final shape and dimension in a series of shaping and finishing operations.  Most of the slabs are heated in reheating furnaces and rolled into final shape in hot– or cold–rolling or finishing mills.

Rolling of steel is one of the most important manufacturing processes for steel. It is usually the first step in the processing of steel after it is made and cast either in Ingot or continuous cast product in a steel melting shop.

The initial rolling of steel is done in a hot rolling mill where blooms and slabs are rolled down to various rolled products such as plate, sheet, strip, coil, billet, structures, rails, bars and rods. Cold rolling of steel is also carried out for some products. Many of these rolled products such as rails and reinforcement bars etc. are directly used by the consumers while the other rolled products are the starting raw materials for subsequent manufacturing operations such as forging, sheet metal working, wire drawing, extrusion, machining, and fabrication industry. Steel rolling can produce a wide range of products. The width of a rolled product can vary from a few millimeters to several meters while the thickness can vary from 0.1 mm to more than 200 mm. The rolled section can be square, rectangular, round or shaped sections.

The Indian re-rolling industry has played a critical role in determining the growth path of the Indian steel industry. From a one million tonne industry at the time of India’s Independence to emerging as one of the major drivers of steel industry growth globally, the Indian steel industry has traversed an eventful journey.

Steel production in India is forecast to double by 2031, with growth rate expected to go above 10 per cent in FY18

Today, the changing structure of the domestic steel industry and fluctuating market conditions, both in terms of finished product and raw materials (the IF and sponge iron industry are both impacted by market forces as well as policy directions), makes it important to assess the present status of this key segment. This is important as growth potential of this industry is immense, given the Government’s focus on infrastructure development, specially rural infrastructure. In view of such concerns, Joint Plant Committee (JPC) under the aegis of the Ministry of Steel had taken up a survey of the Indian re-rolling industry, not only to understand its present status in terms of spread, production, facilities, expansion, constraints faced but also to assess the direction of future growth.

The survey is primarily intended to help JPC in updating its database, so as to:

  1. depict the prevalent and up-to-date status of industry
  2. provide correct tools to aid policy decisions at the Government level and strategy formulation at the entrepreneurial level
  3. attempt building up a disaggregated database by focusing on trends in sub-sectors like wire rods

National Steel Policy (NSP) implemented to encourage the industry to reach global benchmarks

It is important to note that the survey findings should be treated as an indicator of the state of affairs in the Indian re-rolling industry and is completely based on the data reported by the units, as collected during the survey.


Steel industry and its associated mining and metallurgy sectors have seen a number of major investments and developments in the recent past.

India is expected to overtake Japan to become the world’s second largest steel producer soon, and has envisaged achieving 300 MT of annual steel production capacity by 2030.

According to the data released by Department of Industrial Policy and Promotion (DIPP), the Indian metallurgical industries attracted Foreign Direct Investments (FDI) to the tune of US$ 10.56 billion in the period April 2000–December 2017.

Steel consumption is expected to grow 5.7 per cent year-on-year to 92.1 MT in 2018.

Some of the major investments in the Indian steel industry are as follows:

  1. Vedanta Star Ltd has outbid other companies to acquire Electrosteel Steels for US$ 825.45 million.
  2. Tata Steel won the bid to acquire Bhushan Steel by offering a consideration of US$ 5,461.60 million.
  3. JSW Steel has planned a US$ 4.14 billion capital expenditure programme to increase its overall steel output capacity from 18 million tonnes to 23 million tonnes by 2020.
  4. Liberty House Group, a UK based business, is aiming to acquire Bhushan Power and Steel which will help the conglomerate to enter the Indian market.
  5. Tata Steel has decided to increase the capacity of its Kalinganagar integrated steel plant from 3 million tonnes to 8 million tonnes at an investment of US$ 3.64 billion.